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Hati-hati, Susu-Makanan Bayi Mengandung Bakteri Berbahaya
Hati-hati, Susu-Makanan Bayi Mengandung Bakteri Berbahaya
Hasil Penelitian Doktor IPB

Bagi orangtua yang suka memberi bayinya susu formula dan makanan bayi, sebaiknya berhati-hati memilih.

Hasil penelitian dari tiga doktor Institut Pertanian Bogor (IPB) menemukan bakteri berbahaya yang disebut Enterobacter sakazakii dalam susu formula dan makanan bayi produksi lokal.

Bagi bayi, bakteri ini sangat berbahaya bahkan dalam ilmu kedokteran dunia sepakat jika masuk dalam tubuh bayi dalam jumlah signifikan bisa membawa kematian.

Karena itu pula, Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan (BPOM) RI sedang menyelidiki temuan peneliti dari Fakultas Kedokteran Hewan IPB tersebut.

Direktur Survailance dan Penyuluhan Keamanan Pangan BPOM Azizah Nuraini Prabowo mengaku telah menindaklanjuti temuan tersebut dan telah melakukan pertemuan dengan tim IPB, departemen pertanian (Deptan), dan departemen kesehatan (depkes).
"Pertemuan akhir pekan lalu dan diambil kesepakatan untuk menindaklanjuti secara spesifik temuan itu," kata Azizah kepada Persda Network, Minggu (24/2).
Menurut dia, pihaknya perlu tahu dimana bakteri itu ditemukan apakah pada bahan baku, proses produksi, atau hasil produksi.

"Follow up kita permasalahannya di mana. Apakah penggunaan teknologinya atau apa. Ini laporannya belum lama. Dan secara resmi belum masuk laporannya," ujar Azizah.
Azizah berjanji akan menarik produk-produk tersebut dari pasaran jika pihaknya sudah membuktikan.

"Kita sudah kerja sama dengan deptan karena bahan baku susu domain deptan. Networking internasional juga kita jalin kerja sama. Kita tunggu saja hasilnya,"katanya.

Sayangnya, hasil penelitian IPB tidak menyebut merek dan hanya menyebut seluruh sampel adalah merek terkenal dan beredar luas di pasaran Indonesia.

40 Persen
Ketua penelitian ini, Dr Sri Estuningsih, mengungkapkan, penelitian melibatkan 22 merek susu formula produksi lokal dan 15 makanan bayi, juga produksi lokal.
"Sampel makanan dan susu formula yang kami teliti berasal dari produk lokal," kata Estu, panggilan akrab Sri Estuningsih.

Hasil penelitian menunjukkan dari 22 merek susu, ada lima atau 22,73 persen yang mengandung bakteri Enterobacter sakazakii.

Yang agak mengkhawatirkan di sampel makanan bayi. Dari 15 merek, ada enam atau 40 persen yang mengandung bakteri yang merusak saraf tulang belakang bayi tersebut.
Keseluruhan sampel diambil Sri dari susu formula dan makanan bayi yang dipasarkan periode April-Juni 2006.

Hasil penelitian ini baru dipublikasikan pada 15 Februari 2008 silam melalui www.ipb.ac.id.

Hasil pengujian enteroksin murni dan enteroksin yang dipanaskan dan bakteri mengakibatkan enteritis (peradangan saluran pencernaan), sepsis (infeksi peredaran darah) dan meningitis (infeksi pada lapisan urat saraf tulang belakang dan otak).
Selain Estu, peneliti yang terlibat adalah Drh Hernomoadi Huminto MVS, Dr I Wayan T Wibawan, dan Dr Rochman Naim.

Penelitian dilakukan melalui dua tahap. Tahap pertama, isolasi dan identifikasi E.sakazakii dalam 22 sampel susu formula dan 15 sampel makanan bayi.
Tahap kedua, menguji 12 isolat E.sakazakii dari hasil isolasi dan kemampuannya menghasilkan enteroksin (racun) melalui uji sitolisis (penghancuran sel).
Dari 12 isolat yang diujikan terdapat 6 isolat yang menghasilkan enteroksin. Uji selanjutnya adalah menguji isolat tersebut pada kemampuan toksinnya setelah dipanaskan.

Terdapat 5 dari 6 isolat tersebut yang masih memiliki kemampuan sitolisis setelah dipanaskan.

Selanjutnya Estu menentukan satu kandidat dari isolat tersebut dan menguji enterotoksin serta bakteri vegetatifnya pada bayi tikus berusia enam hari.
Bayi tikus diinfeksi melalui rute oral (cekok mulut) menggunakan sonde lambung khusus dan steril.

Setelah tiga hari, dilakukan pengambilan sampel organ tikus tersebut. "Hasil pengujian enteroksin murni dan enteroksin yang dipanaskan dan bakteri mengakibatkan enteritis, sepsis, dan meningitis.

Menurut Estu, masyarakat awam sangat penting memahami bahwa susu formula bayi bukanlah produk steril sehingga dalam penggunaannya serta penyimpanannya perlu perhatian khusus untuk menghindari kejadian infeksi karena mengkonsumsi produk tersebut.

Estu secara pribadi telah melihat langsung fasilitas salah satu perusahaan makanan dan susu formula dengan omzet terbesar di Indonesia.
"Sebagian besar fasilitas tersebut telah memenuhi standard operational prosedure perusahaan susu formula bayi, dan saat ini masih terus dilakukan upaya untuk mencegah kontaminasi tersebut," ujar Estu.


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